Top Terms

Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku / Māori Subject Headings

June 2006
Updated July 2015

Links & downloads

List of recently added terms

Changes to existing terms, July 2015

Downloadable version for your library system:

20150716-marc.xml (2014 Kb)

msh20150716-marc8.mrc.zip (210 Kb)

msh20150716-utf8.mrc.zip (211 Kb)

List of National Bibliography records that include Māori Subject Headings:

Download records in unicode (UTF-8) format

Download records in non-unicode (MARC8) format


Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku has been developed as part of the Māori Subject Headings Project jointly sponsored by LIANZA, Te Rōpū Whakahau and the National Library of New Zealand.

The list of over 1,400 headings and their associated references is appropriate for use at a public library level. As more terms are developed they will be added to the list.

The purpose is to provide a structured path to subjects that Māori customers can relate to and use to find material in libraries. It is not intended to be used as a dictionary. It has been developed so that cataloguers and descriptive archivists have a reliable and comprehensive resource to use when describing material either in or about Māori. It will be used by the National Library of New Zealand to enhance its service to Māori library users. However it should not be seen as authoritative beyond its intended purpose for use in libraries and archives.

New terms are developed by Te Whakakaokao (Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku Reo Māori Working Group). For more information, please refer to the Te Whakakaokao (Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku Reo Māori Working Group): Terms of Reference.

The Iwi Hapū names list is located separately at http://iwihapu.natlib.govt.nz/iwi-hapu/ 

Feedback on the list and suggestions for future terms for inclusion, together with supporting context, are welcomed. Please contact reo@dia.govt.nz

Read about Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku in Māori


Te Rōpū Whakahau logo. LIANZA logo. National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa logo.

Conceptual framework

In the Māori worldview, aspects of taha tinana/the people, taha wairua/the spiritual and taha hinengaro/the mind are intrinsically connected and related to each other. This model recognises both the traditional and contemporary perspectives.

Māori worldview diagram.

Thesaurus structure requires adherence to standard conventions in the use of terms and how they are applied. In order to develop Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku, a framework has been formulated that retains the integrity of both worlds.

File structure diagram.

Structure of the file

The file covers subjects in te reo Māori representing a range of topics found mainly in published materials.
The kaupapa or term is defined in both te reo Māori and English. It shows broader and narrower relationships and related subjects.
Terms in italics will lead to words chosen as subjects. Where possible, dialect terms are in italics, and name the iwi source.

The Main Index displays all the letters in the alphabet. Look up a word and all the index tabs will be visible. The Top Term Index lists all the broadest terms in the thesaurus in a hierarchical list. The Hierarchy displays the place of the term located within its own hierarchy. The Term Index returns to the letter searched.

Application of terms

The Library of Congress, MARC Standards Office, has authorised the use of a source code ‘reo’ to identify Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku thesaurus terms used as subject headings.

e.g.   650 – 7 |a Pōwhiri . |2 reo

The National Library of New Zealand will add subject headings from Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku to bibliographic records, as well as the usual Library of Congress subject headings, for all works written in the Māori language, or about Māori.

The terms have been loaded into the National Library catalogue and the National Bibliographic Database as authority records available to users of the cataloguing client. These authority records do not contain all the information in Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku and are therefore not intended to be a replacement. Libraries will be able to obtain a full set of these authority records to download into their catalogues. Users of the OPAC will be able to see references, scope notes, and broader and narrower terms in relation to records on the database.

Descriptors used in the file



Kaupapa / Term

A word or phrase (term) for a specific subject, which is used as part of the controlled vocabulary.


Scope note in Māori describing the term.

Scope Note

Scope note in English describing the term.


Displays un-preferred terms in Māori. These are words and phrases not chosen as subjects.

Used For

Displays un-preferred terms in English. These are words and phrases not chosen as subjects.

Tahūhū / Broader Terms

Displays terms that have a broader subject coverage.

Heke / Narrower Terms

Displays terms that have a narrower subject coverage.

Reo a Iwi / Dialect Term

Displays alternative dialect terms used by some iwi.

Kaho / Related Terms

Displays terms that are related in subject but may not form part of the same hierarchy.

Titiro mai / Use

Directs from un-preferred terms to preferred terms used in the hierarchy.




Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku / Māori Subject Headings

Mei 2006
Hurae/Hōngongoi 2015


Tukuna mai ngā kōrero mō te rārangi nei me ngā kupu hoki hei āpiti, he tautoku hoki te kaupapa. Whakapā mai ki a reo@dia.govt.nz


He mea mahi ngā tahi Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku nei e LIANZA, e Te Rōpū Whakahau, e Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa anō hoki.

Kua puta kē ki ngā whare pukapuka ināianei ko te rārangi kupu, neke atu i te 1,400 ngā kupu ūpoko me ōna whakamārama. Kia puta ake he kupu hou anō ka āpitihia atu ki te rārangi kupu.

Ko te whāinga he kupu ūpoko e whai tikanga ana ki te hunga Māori e kimi kōrero ana i roto i ngā whare pukapuka. Ehara kau kē ia hei papa kupu. He mea mahi atu tēnei hei rauemi āwhina i ngā kaiwhakaemi me ngā kaikohikohi kōrero ki te whakamārama rauemi reo Māori ao Māori rānei. Ka whakamahia e Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa ki te whakakaha ake i ngā tautoko Māori. Otirā kāore i meinga kia whai mana ki waho atu i ngā whare pukapuka me ngā wāhi tukunga kōrero.

Kei te ipurangi motuhake te rārangi kupu Iwi Hapū kei http://iwihapu.natlib.govt.nz/iwi-hapu/

Te Rōpū Whakahau logo. LIANZA logo. National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa logo.

Herenga whakaaro

I te ao Māori, he whakapapa kotahi tō te tangata, te taiao, me te ao wairua hoki. Kei tēnei tauira ko te ao tawhito me te ao hou.

Māori worldview diagram.

Kei ngā tikanga papa kupu ōrite he taumata tika mō ia kupu me ia whakamahinga o te kupu. Mō Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku, kua oti tētahi herenga whakaaro hei hāpai i te mana o ngā ao e rua.

File structure diagram.

Te āhua o te rārangi kupu

Kei te rārangi nei ngā kaupapa i roto i te reo Māori mō ētahi kaupapa katoa e kitea ana i roto i ngā tini tānga kōrero.
He mea whakamārama ia kupu ki roto i te reo Māori me te reo Pākehā. Ka whakaaturia ngā pānga whānui, whakaheke hoki, me ngā pānga kaupapa.
Ko ngā kupu tītaha ka toro ki ngā kupu kaupapa tonu. Inā mōhiotia, kua tuhi tītaha tahitia ngā kupu ā-iwi, me te ingoa o te iwi.

Kei te Rārangi Matua e tātai ana ngā pū kupu katoa o te tātai reta.  Kimihia atu he kupu ka puta ake ngā kupu tumu katoa.  Kei te Rārangi Kupu Tumu e tātaia ana ngā kupu whānui katoa o te papa kupu ōrite.  Kei te Tātai e whakaatuhia ana ngā heke o te kupu.  Ko te Rārangi Kupu e hoki ai ki te pū kupu rapu.

Te whakamana i ngā kupu

Kua whakamanahia e te tari MARC Standards Office, i te Library of Congress, te kupu nei ‘reo’ hei tohu i ngā kupu a te papa kupu ōrite Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku hei kupu ūpoko kaupapa.

pēnei i te   650 – 7 |a Pōwhiri . |2 reo

Ka tāngia e Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa ngā kupu ūpoko kaupapa o te rārangi Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku ki ngā rēkoata rauemi, me ngā kupu ūpoko kaupapa hoki o te Library of Congress, mō ngā tānga katoa i tuhia ki te reo Māori, mō te ao Māori rānei.

Kua āpitihia atu ngā kupu nei ki te whakarārangitanga a Te Puna Mātauranga me te Pūranga Whakarārangitanga ā-Motu hei kupu mana mā te hunga whakaemi rauemi mai ki tēnei whakarārangitanga. Kāore ēnei rēkoata mana e takune ana hei whakakapinga, nō te mea kāore te katoa o ngā kōrero a Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku kei roto. Ka taea e ngā whare pukapuka ēnei rēkoata mana katoa te tiki mō ā rātou ake whakarārangitanga. Ko te hunga mahi mai i te OPAC ka kite i ngā puna kōrero, ngā tuhinga āpitihanga, me ngā kupu whānui, whakaheke hoki mō te kaupapa i runga i tēnei pūranga kōrero.

Ngā kupu o te whakarārangitanga

Kupu whakamārama

He whakamārama

Kaupapa / Term

Ko tētahi kaupapa, hei tuhi atu.


He tuhinga āpitihanga i te reo Māori hei whakamārama ake.

Tuhinga Āpitihanga

He tuhinga āpitihanga i te reo Pākehā hei whakamārama ake.


Ka whakaatuna he kupu kē o te reo Māori. Ko ngā kupu ēnei kāore i tuhia atu hei kaupapa.

Mō Te

Ka whakaatuna he kupu kē i te reo Pākehā. Ko ngā kupu ēnei kāore i tuhia atu hei kaupapa.

Tāhūhū / Broader Terms

Ko ngā kupu whānui ake mō te kaupapa.

Heke / Narrower Terms

Ko ngā kupu whakaheke mō te kaupapa.

Reo ā-Iwi / Dialect Term

Ko ngā kupu rerekē ā ētahi iwi.

Kaho / Related Terms

Ko ngā kupu e pā ana ki te kaupapa kāore i roto i te tātai tuhi.

Titiro Mai / Use

Ka tohutohu mai i ngā kupu kē ki ngā kupu tika mō te tātai tuhi.